Studio Lighting for Beginners


A “photograph” is a “light drawing” (from the Greek, phos meaning “light,” and graphê meaning “drawing”). The best way to control that light is by providing your own. Here are some tips.

Why Not Use The Sun?

The sun is just too darn bright. Perhaps you could invent a solar-fusion dimmer switch thing, but everyone in the world would get upset. Outdoors, you can use shade and scrims (translucent fabric) to “hold back” (reduce) the light, but sunlight reflects off everything so it can get rather tricky.

For full control over lighting, you need to get rid of the sun and go indoors, into a studio.

What Is A Studio?

A studio — from the Latin studere, meaning “to study” — is a workroom. You want a location where you can minimize the effect of sunlight and have enough space to move around with your subject and equipment. And have a coffee.

Let’s See A Studio

Here’s a studio. Notice that this is a simple room with no windows, so there’s no sunlight involved. The walls are white so there’s no color introduced. There’s a simple backdrop using a roll of white material. And there’s space for a model, some equipment, and to move around. The big question is, where is the coffee machine?

The Coffee Machine

Ah, excellent. Oh look, there’s an espresso for you too. Mmmm.

Back at work: Let’s look at the lighting in this picture. We can see that the light levels are very even throughout. There are no bright spots, no dark areas; we can see everything without distraction and our focus is allowed to be on the subject matter itself. How is this achieved? By using several types of lights.<, currently on the backdrop.

  • Softboxes: The pair of white squares are translucent fabric over lamps to provide soft, diffused, main light over the subject.
  • Umbrella: Top right is a gold umbrella which reflects a spot light. This could be a strobe (flash) light to put some bright “key” light on the model’s face.
  • Reflector: The gold circle on the right can reflect light into dark areas, such as under the chin, and can be held by an assistant. When they’re not making the coffee.
  • Well done, you found all five. We’ll look at each one in turn.

    Background Lighting

    Here we have a couple of spot lights just for the backdrop. They help remove shadows behind the subject.

    Main Lighting

    See those two black boxy things? These are our main lights that provide general lighting all around the subject.

    Inside the black fabric canopies are lamps. They can be continuous bright lamps, or strobes which fire like a flash. Either way they will be bright and require some power packs (out of view).

    The canopies — called “softboxes” — provide a white fabric screen that the lamp shines through. This disperses the light for that all-important even distribution of soft, diffused light.

    Overhead Light

    Notice that one of the softboxes is overhead, to provide the effect of general sunlight. This is difficult (read: expensive) to do, since you need a big tripod, a convenient I-beam, a gantry, or some other sturdy structure.

    Car studios can have massive overhead lights. Annie Leibovitz often uses a huge overhead light, or an umbrella light on a pole held by an assistant.

    The picture below shows four lights suspended over a large overhead scrim and side panel, all of which is suspended by wires. Now that’s quite a production. I expect you to have this set up by the end of the day.

    Key Lights

    This is usually a strobe (flash) into or through an umbrella. The key light provides the light for the viewer’s perspective. If you’re using a camera flash unit, place it off camera with an extension cable to avoid a bright and direct reflection.

    You might another lamp as a “fill-in” to reduce shadows caused by the main light. The fill-in light is usually 1/2 to 1/10 the brightness of the key light.

    Bounce Light

    Well this guy looks happy. You may need to fill in some darker areas, such as under a person’s chin. You could use another lamp, but who has that many lamps? Instead, just reflect light from an existing source using some white card or a fabric reflector, and a happy guy in a yellow shirt.

    The Eyes Have It

    Where do your eyes end up on this model? On her eyes. And what helps draw you there? The lovely white glint in her eyes. This is called a catchlight.

    Catchlight

    A catchlight is a white spot in a person’s eyes and is key to make the person look alive.

    “Catchlight: Light that reflects in a subject’s eyes and adds life to the portrait. Either a flash or reflector panel is used to create catchlight.”
    Canon, “Flash Terminology”

    The easiest catchlight is made by turning on your camera’s flash, using it as a “fill-flash” and getting a reflection off the eye. In the photo above, the catchlight is actually the reflection of a softbox. Look at this picture:

    Synchronized Flash

    Your camera can transmit a signal to operate the flash lights. Your camera may already have this built-in, or you place on the hot-shoe a small transmitter which operates via infra-red or a radio frequency signal. Your camera is the “master” and the studio flashes are "“slaves.”

    Optional Lights

    Accent Lights

    These are usually small spot lights aimed at part of the subject to draw the eye somehwere. Accent lights are often used on a model’s hair and/or shoulder.

    Here we have an accent light for the eyes, and of course that lovely glint. Hey, is that my coffee?

    Halo Lighting

    Ever watched CSI? They always have a rim light on the person’s hair. It helps separate the head from the background and generally looks cool.

    This rim or “halo” light is created by one spot light behind the person. The trick is to hide the light off-camera, either behind the person or out of frame, and minimize the glare it causes into the lens. You can use a lens hood, hold a black card over the lens, and/or use black baffles on the spot light to control the light’s direction.

    This Looks Expensive

    Not necessarily. I’ve done photo shoots on my patio using white cardboard panels and lamps from The Home Depot; total cost: about $50. You can buy starter kits with two studio lights, a softbox and an umbrella for around $300. For around a $1,000 you could build a rough studio in your garage or a spare room.

    This Looks Technical

    No, it’s not really. A great thing about photography is that you can see the results instantly. So take a test shot and see what’s not lit properly. Then move your available lights around accordingly.

    To make something brighter, just point a light at it. To reduce light, angle the lamp away. To remove shadows, position a reflecting white card. It’s all pretty easy, and kind of fun.

    Now let’s look at the finished product.

    Comments

    Comments


    Reply by Evgeny

    September 1, 2016

    I have a quick question. I am looking to buy my first softbox kit and I am thinking if 3 piece (two sides and 1 head piece) with total 12 bulbs of 45 / 60 watt will be sufficient enough for portrait and maybe product photography?

    Thank you in advance for assistance.


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    September 2, 2016

    Yes, that sounds good.

    Later on, if you want, you could get brighter LED lights (which use less watts).


    Reply by Anonymous

    August 18, 2016

    I know this question has been asked and answered thousands of times. I have watched and watched videos, read, and studied and practiced. BUT still can not get it right. In studio (garage) set up and lighting. I have 2 strobes with modeling lights two umbrella lights with 800 lumens LED bulbs and on one of the strobes has a softbox. So I set up the lights no other lights on except some ambient light very little through a top side window. Any maybe some light coming under door when cracked a foot or so, but doesnÆt affect set up So my issue is it seems like I either don’t have enough light and have to use large ISO with constant light and my pics are orange and red (I know to adjust WB etc.helps a little but still hueing) strobe is 5500k if I use it. so if I use it then my shots are whited out and I lose that ambiance from the modeling light I’ve moved back then its too dark I’ve turned down and all the around. Maybe I just donÆt get it. I want to do fashion shots and fantasy and scifi scenes with beautiful skin and hair and costumes but everything looks flashy and hard even with softboxes then seems to dark, Maybe I should just give up.


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    September 2, 2016

    Yes, studio photography is tricky.

    2 x 800 lumens is not a lot of light, so with the ambient approach you will be forced to use some combination of (a) high ISO (increases noise); (b) long exposure (increases blur, requires a tripod); and (c) wider aperture (reduces depth-of-field, may require an expensive lens).

    For the type of photography you want, you need more light. You’ll have to discount the ambient and window light (or replace/mimic them with artificial light). You could get brighter bulbs, and/or more lights, and/or figure out if you can adjust the strength of the strobe light.

    You could do with finding an experienced studio photographer to visit your studio and offer specific advice. Perhaps you can find one locally through mutual friends, or by placing an ad. If you have a good camera store nearby, you could get advice there, and they may know of someone who can help.


    Reply by Anonymous

    June 29, 2016

    I’ve volunteered to take photos of children visiting with Santa this year in a rather narrow recreation room in an apartment complex. It is a bright room with overhead fluorescent lighting. Would two 33" shoot-through umbrella lights with two 45-watt 5500K perfect day light fluorescent bulbs help soften the light and help eliminate shadows? How can I ensure I don’t get “red eye” with some photos? I’m using a Sony Handycam HDR-CX900. Thank you for your tutorial and your help.


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    July 9, 2016

    Hi.

    Any additional light sources can help soften the light and help eliminate shadows.

    You might get some color differences by using 5500K lamps if the overhead lighting is 5000K, which is typical for fluorescent lighting. Whites with 5500K lighting can look ‘warm‘ (orange) compared to whites with 5000K lighting which look ‘cold’ (blue). You can adjust the white balance of your camera to get a neutral white (and/or change your lamps to match the color temperature of the overhead lighting).

    “Red eye” occurs when a flash light on or near the camera reflects off the retinas of people’s eyes. You can eliminate this by positioning the flash away from the camera. It sounds like you are not using an on-camera flash, so if you position your two umbrella lights at least arm’s length away either side of the camera, you should not get red eye. Even if you do get red-eye, this can be removed by post-production software such as Photoshop or Photos (Mac).


    Reply by Email (optional)

    June 19, 2016

    Hi

    I own a photo "booth" where I use a different custom backdrop for each client. I use an iPad for a "camera" ... easy for wifi printing photos on site.

    My issue is that my photos print out "dark" even though they look "bright" in the photo album of the iPad.

    I’m using 2 umbrella lights ... silver reflective. What is the best bulbs I should be using for ultimate brightness? I do not have a flash ...

    Thanks!


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    June 20, 2016

    If the photo looks good on the iPad but not on the print, perhaps it is the printer. You could review (or you could ask a photographer friend to review) the photo in photo-editing software such as Photos (Mac) or Photoshop. The histogram and levels should tell you if the photo is good or not.

    There are always brighter bulbs but the bulbs that came with the lights should be bright enough.


    Reply by Jerry

    June 1, 2016

    Thnk you very much, my name Jerry. I have a local studio with two standing light but still have a serious issue with shadows especially on day white background, and if I must get a good shot or a manageable one the light on my subject becomes too much. Please how do I defeat this shadow? What kind of light is in a studio? Were are the best position to place lights? Thank you.


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    June 7, 2016

    Hi Jerry.

    One light always produces a shadow. The trick is to add more lights to fill in the shadow. These are called “fill” lights.

    If your main light is too bright, move it further away from the subject, and/or bounce the light off a card/reflector/ceiling, and/or use a cover/scrim, and/or reduce the wattage.

    If you can move the backdrop further away, that should reduce the sharpness of the shadow.


    Reply by Anonymous

    April 21, 2016

    I like the way you deliver information. No pretense. Your love of the art propels me on. Thank you.


    Reply by Anonymous

    January 26, 2016

    If I’m only trying to eliminate the shadow behind the subject, do I just need the bright lights on either side?


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    January 27, 2016

    Yes, that should work.

    Determine what light source is making the shadow, then position similar light sources at 45-degree to 90-degree angles from the primary source to get light into the shadow area.


    Reply by Dara

    December 9, 2015

    I’ve purchased umbrellas for my home. Please tell me the correct bulbs to buy in terms of watts. What I have just plugs into a 110 volt plugin so I’m sure it could only handle so much. I’ve bought a 100 watt bulb but this doesn’t seem bright enough to reach the subject without sticking it in their face. Thanks


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    January 8, 2016

    Hi Dara,

    A typical bulb would be a 45W CFL 6500K. CFL=compact fluorescent, one of those spiral energy-efficient bulbs. A 45W CFL=a 200 watt incandescent bulb. 6500K is the color temperature, being daylight balanced so you can use it with natural light and maintain color-neutral whites. You can adjust the distance of the umbrellas to get the lighting effect you are after.


    Reply by Anonymous

    November 12, 2015

    Informative and very witty. Thanks.


    Reply by Anonymous

    September 6, 2015

    Very nice. I am new in photography world and you explained me very well. I had lot of questions about light setup now that are cleared :) thanks


    Reply by Anonymous

    August 16, 2015

    Thank you for this article!


    Reply by Anonymous

    July 9, 2015

    Awesome post, thank you!

    I’m having a hard time doing something I’m sure is simple. I’m making a video tutorial, filming only my head while painting something on my desk. I want to remove any shadows. I’m told a broom arm would work but the tripod is big and bulky. Any simple, easy suggestion, or desk lamp recommendation please?


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    January 13, 2016

    Hello. I’m not sure how the broom arm fits in with this.

    Removing shadows can be done by having multiple indirect light sources.

    One direct light will produce a hard shadow. You can add a diffuser and/or reflector to disperse the light and soften the shadow. You can add more lights to fill in the shadow area. For example, four lamps (positioned with one at each corner of your desk) should light the desk evenly.


    Reply by Anonymous

    June 3, 2015

    What about when using a painted wall? I am getting a glare / reflection of the softboxes on the wall?


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    June 3, 2015

    To reduce glare, reflection, or other unwanted light, try changing the position of the lights and/or camera. A reflection — imagine a mirror — occurs when the angle from the light to the wall is the same as the angle of the camera to the wall, so change one.

    You can also soften the light more — make it more diffuse — by adding more scrim (fabric over the light). For glare that you can’t otherwise remove, you can add a polarizer filter on the lens. Note that this also reduces the light level into the camera by a stop or two, so you may have to change the camera settings or light levels to compensate.


    Reply by Anonymous

    May 25, 2015

    Hey Andrew

    This article is quite nice as it shows a simple way of what to do in a lighting studio. I am doing a school project and was planning on using the lighting studio the school has to take pictures of musical instruments, although you didn’t touch on that subject it was still really helpful. Thanks. :D


    Reply by Anonymous

    April 23, 2015

    Thank you for that great artical you make me smile and I love it

    I am going to buy a new studio, and I did found a good deal to buy three softboxes from mecastudio.

    So I was thinking to buy an umbrella to lighting the background with the camera flash or should I buy it with it on light and put the flash on the camera for shooting? I hope you understand my weak English.

    Thank you


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    May 19, 2015

    UMBRELLA

    Hi,

    If the umbrella is for the background then buy it with a light on it, and use your flash on your camera as the main light.

    Andrew


    Reply by Abhi

    April 12, 2015

    Hi, I am going to open my new studio. I want to set up light for photographic and video graphic.My question is how much keep distance from curtain to light o flower and selling light.plz guide me


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    April 21, 2015

    Hi Abhi,

    There’s no set distance, and it depends upon the subject, light source, and desired effect. For a flower, a light may typically be between one to three feet away. Fortunately, digital cameras give us free and immediate feedback about the effects of lighting, so you can try different distances and positions to get the look that you desire.

    Good luck with your new studio!

    Andrew


    Reply by Anonymous

    April 9, 2015

    I love the way you explain everything in such simple ways and how you add a little touch of humor. It keeps things interesting while educational. I also love the addition of coffee... as a coffee drinker myself that is definitely a must. Thanks for the post. Looking forward to more of them.


    Reply by Anonymous

    March 22, 2015

    I started a studio setup for portraits in a spare room in my basement, but my lighting doesn’t seem to be right yet... The kit I got has 3 softboxes and a reflector, but nothing else. I think I need some sort of flash, but would appreciate some advice before investing in anything else. What would you say are the necessities for me to purchase, and how would you recommend I place my softboxes? The portraits I’ve taken so far seem to be poorly lit, especially the eyes. Thanks in advance for your insight!


    Reply by Anonymous

    February 23, 2015

    Nicely written post. Very educational. Gonna try out some shots with this post aid.


    Reply by Anonymous

    February 19, 2015

    So funny and down to Earth!!!! Thank you so much!


    Reply by Melinda

    January 29, 2015

    I bought a backdrop to do some pictures for my niece (maternity). I am not a professional. I want to get a continuous light to help. I do not do well indoors. And I Love the round catchlights. I have read alot on not bothering with a light kit so i would like to get a good quality stand, light and softbox (round/octagon). Its so confusing! I dont know what to get. i saw the westcott ulite but didnt want to go with that. I did like the westcott 26 rapid box but its for speedlites. Can you provide some good choices?


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    February 6, 2015

    Hi Melinda,

    What a quandry! Sorry, I can’t recommend anything specific. Can you go to a local camera store and ask for a demonstration of their various offerings?

    Andrew


    Reply by Anonymous

    December 29, 2014

    That sure is a great looking picture of a cup of coffee ya got there ;-)

    Setup ain’t bad either


    Reply by Anonymous

    December 17, 2014

    What do you suggest as the easiest way to avoid that hot-spot on a subjects face from the main light whether it’s a softbox or an umbrella? It’s a hassle to retouch if the person has a shiny face. Can the main light be directed slightly “off” subject so it’s not exactly direct?


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    January 26, 2015

    Hi,

    You can play about with the position, and strength, of your lights to get the lighting you want. Take a test shot and, if there’s a hot-spot on the face, move the main light further away, or reduce the power, or diffuse it with a scrim/cloth, or point it backwards and use a reflector. Yes you can direct the main light slightly “off”.

    Best wishes,

    Andrew


    Reply by Anonymous

    December 10, 2014

    Love it! I learned more about lights here than in first year of university (we spend the first 4 months on light) :)


    Reply by Anonymous

    November 17, 2014

    Hello, great tips, absolutely loved it as I am a new starter. I am just looking at photo studio equipment, my question is, can I use a Nikon D5100 with that equipment?


    Reply by Anonymous

    October 28, 2014

    Love the “light-hearted” humor and very informative tutoring! I am just getting back into photography with a digital camera after using film after a few light-years ago..ehem... anyway, I was looking into getting a lighting kit with a green screen backdrop so I can slip different backgrounds in the post editing. Would this kind of shoots require the same lighting as with a regular white backdrop?


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    November 3, 2014

    Hi,

    Yes. The same lighting techniques would apply for a green screen. You may need to ensure that the green screen is evenly lit, perhaps with some extra dedicated lights, so that the color is easy to remove in the post editing.

    Best wishes,

    Andrew


    Reply by DP

    October 15, 2014

    Dude, you’re a great writer. The whole coffee thing was really funny. And using it as the final product?! Very nice. The lighting stuff was good too. Can I work for you?


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    November 3, 2014

    Hi DP,

    Thanks for the kind words. I would love to be in the position to hire people but that is not the case. Enjoy the coffee!

    Andrew


    Reply by SJ

    October 6, 2014

    What kind of bulbs should be used with the lights? Can you say a little about white balance?


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    October 8, 2014

    Hi SJ:

    Thanks for your question. Good point, I failed to mention bulbs. The important issue is color temperature -- you want all your light sources to have the same color temperature. Mixing a 2700K incandescent bulb with a 5700K fluorescent bulb will make your subject look yellow (warm) on the incandescent side and blue (cold) on the fluorescent side. Use the same temperature on all sources for even-colored lighting.

    Set the white balance of your camera by putting a white card where the subject will be, and activating “set white balance” on your camera. That will make whatever color temperature light you have look a clean, neutral white on the image.

    Best wishes,

    Andrew


    Reply by Anonymous

    September 5, 2014

    An informative guide.


    Reply by Jgp088@gmail.com

    April 27, 2014

    If i wanted to use a spare bedroom with taupe walls, no windows, and incandescent can lights, would that work along with my strobes? Any suggestions for improving what i have to work with (different light bulbs, etc?)


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    October 8, 2014

    Sure. As mentioned in another comment, try to use the same color temperature (that “K” number on light bulbs) to get even whites. Experiment with different light placements, checking the result on your digital camera.

    If you are photographing something small (for example, product shots), you can build a half-cube with white board, or buy a “light tent” ($25 to $100 on Amazon). For people, hang fabric for a backdrop, or buy a backdrop online ($35 up).


    Reply by John Egbert

    September 19, 2013

    hi

    i like your coffee jokes


    Reply by Kanchan Dutta

    September 12, 2013

    I come to know everything about lighting .


    Reply by Nalin Solanki

    August 24, 2013

    Very very good and informative for beginners as well as established photographers.


    Reply by Emily

    March 29, 2013

    I am new to this studio lighting thing so I am trying to figure it out. I bought a starter set, a calument Genesis 200, and I there wasn’t much in the way of instructions. I was using my on camera flash to trigger the lights which it is doing, but I am getting these weird shadows that appear in the below ear region, just like I was getting when I used a flash on the hot shoe. I’m not sure if it’s not triggering it at the right time or what. Also, I know with film cameras, you had to use a flash meter, is it the same with digital. When I tried to use the corded trigger, I couldn’t seem to get an image, it was just washed out. When I was trying to look up how to use the system, no one really mentioned them. If there is a book or something you recommend me to read, that would be appreciated too, Thanks for any advice for the newbie!


    Reply by Tami

    March 12, 2013

    I have a problem of not knowing where to put my two light set up. I have a light with umbrella as main and a light with a round umbrella softbox as fill. Can you give me some rough estimates on where to put the things? A friend uses them on the same side..the main light to light the subject, pointed behind to the background to wrap light around and the fill 3 ft. from subject. In college, I am taught to have fill by camera and main above at 1:3 ratio! But there we have hair light and backlight, so not the same as a two lighter. Please advise! Photographing children, seniors, babies in my very small studio spot I rent from the local Legion hall. :) Have shot all outdoor portraits in the past. Lights are new to me.


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    March 12, 2013

    LIGHTING

    Hi Tami,

    Lighting is an art, but digital photography makes it easy to experiment with different positions and see the results instantly. Your main light generally goes by the camera, above the lens, to provide the main light on the face. You can augment this cheaply with some white card (reflector). I like placing a reflector below the face to add light under the chin and eyes.

    The second light (less bright) usually goes to one side (30 degrees) to provide dimension (highlights and shadows) to the face. Try moving the light around and seeing how it changes the look of your portrait. Placing the second light at 90 degrees increases the shadows for a less flattering but bolder/stronger image. Placing the light behind the subject adds rim lighting to the hair.

    A third light would be useful to add some light to the backdrop/background.

    I imagine that there are several sites on the Internet that give more detail and examples about photographic lighting.

    Best wishes,

    Andrew


    Reply by Khalid

    November 18, 2012

    was looking for an impressive iPhone/iPad app for editing my photographs and one of my friend had recommended me very cool app named “Photo Splash Fx”. Although I have tried many others but this one is simply wonderful, as it enables me to

    · Make my shots awesome, no matter if they are old vintage, black and white or new high resolution colorful photos, by applying a plethora of special effects.

    · Use selective colors, variety of brush sizes (adjust manually or automatically), gestures like Pan/Zoom/Splash, unlimited Undos, Colorize, Tintalize, Recolor, blend brush to create custom effects and text blending on your photo.

    · It supports both landscape or portrait mode and options like loading/importing photo from Cloud, instead of just from the camera or photo library.

    · Choice of 135+ built-in effects on different parts of the same photo and still have the option of creating your own custom effects.

    · Option to make favorite list of built-in effects to choose them easily for future.

    · Sharing my edited photographs with friends through Email, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, Picassa, Dropbox or post it in form of the post card, to anywhere in the world.


    Reply by David

    October 12, 2012

    Love it! Im really new to portrait photography and I built a very makeshift studio in my room :) I used an umbrella with a canon speed light 600 ex rt and a soft box of 45x45 cm as a fill light at 45 degree angle going across each other.

    My problem was I was only getting 1/60 or lower shutter speed :( I don’t understand why. The soft box was right next to my camera around the same height and umbrella was 4 foot away and a foot above models head. ISO was at 800 sometimes a 1000 and that sucked. Any advice as to why my shutter speed was so slow? Oh the aperture was at 5.6 and any lower resulted in Boke which I didn’t want so.........

    Thank you


    Reply by Andrew Hudson, PhotoSecrets

    October 26, 2012

    MAKESHIFT STUDIO

    Hi David:

    Check how the flash is being synced with the camera. Sometimes 1/60th is a default setting, and some cameras can’t sync faster than that, or 1/125. You may need a different flash unit, or camera, to get a faster sync.

    Cheers,

    Andrew


    Reply by Agathe Jean Robley

    November 16, 2011

    Nice to learn those tips


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